15,700 statutory rapes reported to U.S. law enforcement agencies in 2000:


News stories of young men sent to prison for statutory rape:



Levine, Harmful to Minors, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2002. pp. 68-70.

Age of menarche has fallen over the past 150 years:



Early laws governing age of consent


Droit du seigneur:


Juliet looking forward to losing her virginity:

Romeo and Juliet. Act 3, Scene 2, Lines 10-16.

The white slavery panic

Berkowitz, Eric. Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire. Counterpoint Press, Berkeley, CA, 2012. Pp. 332-337, 350-356, 384-385.

D’Emilio, J. and E. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. Harper and Row, NY, 1988, p. 153.

Levine, J. Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children from Sex. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2002. Pp. 30, 82, 88.

Walkowitz, J. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1980. p 17.

One in five maidservants bore their employers’ children:

D’Emilio, J. and E.B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. Harper & Row, NY, 1988 pp. 12-14, 43.

Levine, J. Harmful to Minors, p. xxix.

Statues governing child marriage


Efforts to change child-marriage laws

Foderado, L. “It’s Legal for 14-YTear-Olds to Marry. Cuomo Disapproves.” New York Times, March 14, 2017.

Kristof, N. “’It Was Forced on Me:’ Child Marriage in the U.S.,” New York Times, May 28, 2017.

Cougar-cub sex: Is it child sex abuse?


Alarie, M. “Sleeping with Younger Men: Women’s Accounts of Sexual Interplay in Age-Hypogamous Intimate Relationships,” Journal of Sex Research (2019) 22:1.

Hines, D.A. and D. Finelhor. “Statutory Sex Crime Relationships Between Juveniles and Adults: A Review of Social Scientific Research,” Aggression and Violent Behavior (2007) 12:300.

Trantham, S.M. “Male Psychological Adjustment Related to Early Sexual Experiences: Childhood Sex Abuse,” Ph.D. dissertation. 1999.