Are humans naturally monogamous?

Berkowitz, E. Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire. Counterpoint, Berkeley, CA, 2012.

Ryan, C. and C. Jetha. Sex At Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality. HarperCollins, NY, 2010.

Ryan, C. Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What it Means. HarperCollins, NY, 2014.

Dan Savage on monogamy:

Tannahill, R. Sex in History. Stein and Day, NY, 1980.

University of Colorado study showing different rates of infidelity based on face-to-face interviews and an anonymous questionnaire:

Whisman, M.A. and D.K. Snyder. “Sexual Infidelity in a National Sample of American Women: Differences in Prevalence and Correlates as a Function of Method of Assessment,” Journal of Family Psychology (2007) 21:147.

Infidelity studies

Allen, E.S. and D.H. Baucom. “Adult Attachment and Patterns of Extra-Dyadic Involvement,” Family Process (2004) 43:467.

Allen, E.S. and D.H. Baucom. “Dating, Marital, and Hypothetical Extra-Dyadic Involvements: How Do They Compare?” Journal of Sex Research (2006) 43:307.

Allen, E.S. et al. “Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Contextual Factors in Engaging in and Responding to Extramarital Involvement,” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice (2005) 12:101.

Allen, E.S. et al. “Premarital Precursors of Marital Infidelity,” Family Process (2008) 47:243.

Atkins, al. “Understanding Infidelity: Correlates in a National Random Sample,” Journal of Family Psychology (2001) 15:735.

Atkins, D.C. et al. “Infidelity in Couples Seeking Marital Therapy,” Journal of Family Psychology (2005) 19:470.

Balderrama-Durbin, C. et al. “The Risk for Marital Infidelity Across a Year-Long Deployment,” Journal of Family Psychology (2017) epub ahead of print.

Barta. W.D. and M, Kiene. “Motivations for Infidelity in Heterosexual Dating Couples: The Roles of Gender, Personality Differences, and Sociosexual Orientation,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (2005) 22:339.

Beach, S.R.H. et al. “Extramarital Sex: Impact on Depression and Commitment in Couples Seeking Marital Therapy,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (1985) 11:99.

Blow, A. and K. Hartnett. “Infidelity in Committed Relationships: A Methodological Review,” Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (2005) 31:183.

Bogaert, A.F. and S. Savada. “Adult Attachment and Sexual Behavior.” Personal Relationships (2002) 9:191.

Brand, R.J. et al. “Sex Differences in Self-Reported Infidelity and its Correlates,” Sex Roles (2007) 57:101.

Buss, D.M. and D. Schmidt. “Sexual Strategies Theory: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Mating,” Psychological Review (1993) 100:204.

Campbell, K. and D.W. Wright. “Marriage Today: Exploring the Incongruence Between Americans’ Beliefs and Practices,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies (2010) 41:329.

Drigotas, S.M. and W. Barta. “The Cheating Heart: Scientific Explorations of Infidelity,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (2001) 10:177.

Drigotas, S.M. et al. “An Investment Model Prediction of Dating Infidelity,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1999) 77:509.

Feldman, S.S. and E. Cauffman. “Your Cheatin’ Heart: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Correlates of Sexual Betrayal in Late Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescents (1999) 9:227.

Fisher, H.E. Anatomy of Love: The Natural History of Monogamy, Adultery, and Divorce. WW Norton, NY, 1992.

Fisher, H.E. Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. Henry Hold, NY, 2004.

Fisher, H.E. “The Drive to Love: Neural Mechanisms for Mate Choice,” pp. 87-115 in The Psychology of Love (2nd ed.), Sternberg, J.R. and M.L. Barnes (eds.) Yale University Press, New Haven, 2006).

Forste, R. and K. Tanfer. “Sexual Exclusivity Among Dating, Cohabiting, and Married Women,” Journal of Marriage and the Family (1996) 58:33.

Glass, S. and T. Wright “Sex Differences in Type of Extramarital Involvement and Marital Dissatisfaction,” Sex Roles (1985) 12:1101.

Glass, S. and T. Wright. “ Justifications for Extramarital Relationships: The Association Between Attitudes, Behaviors, and Gender,” Journal of Sex Research (1992) 29:361.

Greely. A. “Marital Infidelity” Society (1994) 31:9.

Hazan, C. and P.R. Shaver. “Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1987) 52:511.

Hazan, C. and L.M. Diamond. “The Place of Attachment in Human Mating,” Review of General Psychology (2000) 4:186.

Hunt. M. Sexual Behavior in the 1970s. Playboy Press, Chicago, 1974.

Kinsey, A. et al. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1948

Kinsey, A. et al. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1953.

Laumann, E.O. et al. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994.

Lawson, A. and C. Samson. “Age, Gender, and Adultery,” British Journal of Sociology (1988) 39:409.

Lieberman, B. “Extra-Marital Intercourse: Attitudes Toward a Neglected Sexual Behavior,” Journal of Sex Research (1988) 24:291.

Maykovich, M.K. “Attitudes Versus Behavior in Extramarital Sexual Relations,” Journal of Marriage and the Family (1976) 38:693.

Mock, D.W. and M. Fujioka. “Monogamy and Long-Term Bonding in Vertebrates,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution (1990) 5:39.

Neubeck, G and V.M. Schletzer. “A Study of Extramarital Relationships,” pp. 146-151 in Neubeck, G. (ed) Extramarital Relations. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969.

Orzeck, T. and E. Lung. “Big-Five Personality Differences of Cheaters and Non-Cheaters,” Current Psychology (2005) 24:274.

Petersen, J.L. and J.S. Hyde. “Gender Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Review of Meta-Analytic Results and Large Datasets,” Journal of Sex Research (2011) 48:149.

Platt, R.L. et al. “Parental Conflict and Infidelity as Predictors of Adult Children’s Attachment Style and Infidelity,” American Journal of Family Therapy (2008) 36:149.

Previti, D. and R.P. Amato. “Is Infidelity a Cause or a Consequence of Poor Marital Quality?” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (2004) 21:217.

Prins, K.S. et all. “Equity, Normative Disapproval, and Extramarital Relationships,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (1993) 10:39.

Roscoe, B. et al. “Dating Infidelity: Behaviors, Reasons, Consequences,” Adolescence 1988) 89:35.

Saunders, J.M. and J.N. Edwards. “Extramarital Sexuality: A Predictive Model of Permissive Attitudes,” Journal of Marriage and the Family (1984) 46:825.

Selterman, D. et al. “Motivation for Extradyadic Infidelity Revisited,” Journal of Sex Research (2019) 56:273.

Shackelford, T.K. et al. “Personality, Marital Satisfaction, and Probability of Marital Infidelity,” Individual Differences Research (2008) 6:13.

Thompson, A.P. “Extramarital Sex: A Review of the Research Literature,” Journal of Sex Research (1983) 19:1.

Treas, J. and D. Giesen. “Sexual Infidelity Among Married and Cohabiting Americans,” Journal of Marriage and the Family (2000) 62:48.

Tsapelas, I. et al. “Infidelity: Where, When, Why?” in W.R. Cupach and B.H. Spitzberg, The Dark Side of Close Relationships II. Routledge, NY, 2010, pp. 175-196.

Treas, J. and D. Giesen. “Sexual Infidelity Among Married and Cohabitating Americans,” Journal of Marriage and Family (2000) 62:48.

Whisman, M. et al. “Predicting Sexual Infidelity in a Population-Based Sample of Married Individuals,” Journal of Family Psychology (2007) 21:320.

Whisman, M. and D.K. Snyder. “Sexual Infidelity in a National Survey of American Women: Differences in Prevalence and Correlates as a Function of Method of Assessment,” Journal of Family Psychology (2007) 21:147.

Wiederman, M.W. “Extramarital Sex: Prevalence and Correlates in a National Survey,” Journal of Sex Research (1997) 34:167.


Wiederman, M.W. and C. Hurd. “Extra-Dyadic Involvement During Dating,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships (1999) 16:265.

Wiggins, J.D. and Lederer, D.A. “Differential Antecedents of Infidelity in Marriage,” American Mental Health Counselors Association Journal (1984) 6:152.

Wittenberger J.F. and R.L. Tilson. “The Evolution of Monogamy: Hypotheses and Evidence,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics (1980) 11:197.

Yeniceri, Z and D. Kokdemir. “University Students’ Perceptions of and Explanations for Infidelity: The Development of the Infidelity Questionnaire (INFQ),” Social Behavior and Personality (2006) 34:639.

Why men patronize sex workers

M., J. “What Men Really Want: One Sex Worker’s Perspective,” presented at the 2007 meeting of the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists.

Bader, M. “Why Men Do Stupid Things: The Psychological Appeal of Prostitutes.”

Bindel, J. “Why Men Use Prostitutes,” The Guardian, Jan. 14, 2010.

Calvin, T. “Why I Visit Prostitutes,”

Gagnon, M. “What Kind of Men Go to Prostitutes?” “Percentage of Men (by Country) Who Paid for Sex at Least Once.”

Westerhoff, N. “Why Do Men Buy Sex?” Scientific American Oct. 2012.

“How Many Prostitutes Are Three In the United States and the Rest of the World?”

“Prostitution in the United States.”

Amnesty International’s call to decriminalize sex work 

Canada’s Supreme court strikes down laws criminalizing sex work

Legalizing sex work, pro and con

Bazelon, E. “Oppression or Profession? A Growing Movement of Sex Workers and Activists Is Making the Decriminalization of Prostitution a Feminist Issue,” NY Times Magazine, May 8, 2016.

Brents, B.G. “Nevada’s Legal Brothels Make Workers Feel Safer,” New York Times, Jan. 23, 2014.

Leigh, C. “Labor Laws, Not Criminal Laws, Are the Solution to Prostitution,” New York Times, April 19, 2012.

Lloyd, R. “Legalizing Prostitution Leads to More Trafficking,” New York Times, Aug. 24, 2015.

Marr, S. “Nevada’s Legal Brothels Are Coercive, Too,” New York Times, Aug. 24, 2015.

Ramos, N. “Legal Prostitution Can Never Be Safe,” New York Times, April 19, 2012.

Unigwe, C. “Legalizing Prostitution Brings Protection and Care,” New York Times, Sept. 13, 2013.

Vanwesenbeeck, I. “Sex Work Criminalization is Barking Up the Wrong Tree,” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2017) 46:1631.