In 2016, the federal government spent $216 million on teen sex education efforts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_education_in_the_United_States 

Since 1991, teen sex has declined considerably.

https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/ss/pdfs/ss6509.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats15/tables/1.htm

Boonstra, H. “Teen Pregnancy: Trends and Lessons Learned,” Guttmacher Policy Review (2002) https://www.guttmacher.org/gpr/2002/02/teen-pregnancy-trends-and-lessons-learned.

Finer, L.B. and M.R.Zolna. “Declines in Unintended Pregnancy in the United States: 2008-2011,” New England Journal of Medicine (2016) 374:843.

Lindberg, L. et al. “Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007-2012,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2016) 59:577.

Parker-Pope, T. “The Myth of Rampant Teen Promiscuity,” New York Times, Jan. 27, 2009.

Tavernise, S. “U.S. Fertility Rate Falls to a Record Low, For the Second Straight Year,” New York Times, May 16, 2018.

What teens actually do sexually

Herbenick, D. et al. “Sexual Behavior in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample of Men and Women Ages 14-94,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2010) 7(Suppl):255.

Orenstein, P. Girls and Sex: Navigating the Complicated New Landscape. Harper, NY, 2016.

Approaches to delaying teen sexual initiation and preventing pregnancies and STIs.

Kirby, D. “Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases,” The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2007)

School-based abstinence-only sex education does not reduce teen pregnancies or STIs.

New York Times Editorial Board. “The New Era of Abstinence,” New York Times, May 5, 2018.

Altman, LK. “Study Finds That Teenage Virginity Pledges Are Rarely Kept,” New York Times, March 10, 2004.

Bleaky, A. et al. “Public Opinion on Sex Education in U.S. Schools,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (2006) 160:1151.

Bruckner, H. and P. Bearman “After the Promise: The STD Consequences of Adolescent Virginity Pledges,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2005) 36:271.

DiCenso, A et al. “Interventions to Reduce Unintended Pregnancies Among Adolescents: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” BMJ [formerly British Medical Journal] (2002) 324(7351):1426.

Fortenberry, D.J. “The Limits of Abstinence-Only in Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2005) 36:269.

Lindau. S.T. et al. “What Schools Teach Our Patients about Sex: Content, Quality, and Influences on Sex Education,” Obstetrics and Gynecology (2008) 111:256.

 

Phipps, M.G. “Consequences of Inadequate Sex Education in the United States,” Obstetrics and Gynecology (2008) 111:254.

Rosenbaum, J.E. “Patient Teenagers? A Comparison of the Sexual Behavior of Virginity Pledgers and Matched Non-Pledgers,” Pediatrics (2009) 123:e110. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0407.

Stanger-Hall, K.F. and D.W. Hall. “Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S.,” PlosOne. (2011) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024658.

Prohibiting sexual thoughts triggers sexual thoughts

Efrati, Y. “God, I Can’t Stop Thinking About Sex! The Rebound Effect in Unsuccessful Suppression of Sexual Thoughts Among Religious Adolescents,” Journal of Sex Research (2018) epub ahead of print.

 The vast majority of Americans have sex before marriage

Laumann, E.O. et al. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press, 1994. pp. 502-505.

Finer, L. “Trends in Premarital Sex in the United States: 1954-2003,” Public Health Reports (2007) 122:73.

School-based comprehensive sex education does not reduce teen pregnancies or STIs.

Abe, Y. et al. “Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawaii,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S110.

Barbee, A.P. et al. “Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S85.

Bogani, G. et al. “Impact of School-Based Educational Programs on Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents, in Northern Italy,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2015) 41:121.

Bull, S. et al. “Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program, and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S117.

Calise, T.V. et al. “’Healthy Futures’ Program and Adolescent Sexual Behaviors in 3 Massachusetts Cities: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S103.

DiCenso, A et al. “Interventions to Reduce Unintended Pregnancies Among Adolescents: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” BMJ [formerly British Medical Journal] (2002) 324(7351):1426.

Francis, K. et al. “Scalability of an Evidence-Based Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program: New Evidence from 5 Cluster-Randomized Evaluations of the Teen Outreach Program,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S32.

Gelfond, J. et al. “Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S97.

Goesling, B. et al. “Impacts of an Enhances Family Health and Sexuality Module of the Health Teacher Middle-School Curriculum: A Cluster Randomized Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S125.

Jenner, E. et al. “Impact of an Intervention Designed to Reduce Sexual Health Risk Behaviors of African-American Adolescents: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S78.

Kelsey, M. et al. “Replicating “Reducing the Risk:” 12-onth Impacts of a Cluster Randomized Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S45.

Kelsey, M. et al. “Replicating the Safer Sex Intervention: 9-Month Impact Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S53.

Kelsey, M. et al. “Replicating ‘Cuidate!:’ 6-Month Impact Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S70.

Kirby, D. “Effective Approaches to Reducing Adolescent Unprotected Sex, Pregnancy, and Childbearing,” Journal of Sex Research (2002) 39:51.

Kirby, D. “The Impact of Schools and School Programs Upon Adolescent Sexual Behavior,” Journal of Sex Research (2002) 39:27.

LaChance, R.B. “A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S91.

Mason-Jones, A.J. et al. “School-Based Interventions for Pre venting HIV, sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy in Adolescents,” Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews (106) 11:CD006417.

Potter, S.C. et al. “’It’s Your Game…Keep It Real’ in South Carolina: A Group Randomization Trial Evaluating the Replication of an Evidence-Based Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S60.

Robinson, W.T. et al. “Randomized Trial of the Teen Outreach Program in Louisiana and Rochester, New York,” American Journal of Public Health (2016) 106:S39.

Do condoms spur promiscuity?

Shafii, T. et al. “Association Between Condom Use at Sexual Debut and Subsequent Sexual Trajectories: A Longitudinal Study Using Biomarkers,” American Journal of Public Health (2007) 97:1090.

The changing teen pregnancy rate since 1960

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db89.pdf

The analysis of 52 studies of parental impact on teen sex

Widman, L, et al. “Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer-Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis,” JAMA Pediatrics (2016) 170:52.

Parent-teen sexual discussions produce a substantial decrease in teen pregnancies and STIs.

Aspy, C.B. et al. “Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behavior,” Journal of Adolescence (2007) 30:449.

De Looze, M. et al. “Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Its Association with Adolescent Sexual Behaviors: A Nationally Representative Analysis in the Netherlands,” Journal of Sex Research (2015) 52:257.

Demitriou, E. and D.W. Kaplan. “Adolescent Contraceptive Use and Parental Notification,” American Journal of Diseases of Children (1989) 143:1166.

Kastner, L.S. “Ecological Factors Predicting Adolescent Contraceptive Use: Implications for Intervention,” Journal of Adolescent Health Care (1984) 5:798.

Pick, S. and P.A. Palos. “Impact of the Family on the Sex Lives of Adolescents,” Adolescence (1995) 30:667.

Widman, L. et al. “Sexual Communication Between Early Adolescents and Their Dating Partners, Parents, and Best Friends,” Journal of Sex Research (2014) 51:731.

Parent-teen discussions of sex delay first intercourse and significantly increase youth’s sexual responsibility.

Crosby, R.A. et al. “The Protective Value of Parental Sex Education: A Clinic-Based Exploratory Study of Adolescent Females,” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, (2009) 22:189.

Demetriou, E. and D.W. Kaplan. “Adolescent Contraceptive Use and Parental Notification,” American Journal of Diseases of Children (1989) 143:1166.

DiIorio, C. et al. “Communication About Sexual Issues: Mothers, Fathers, and Friends,” Journal of Adolescent Health (1999) 24:181.

Dittus, P.J. and J. Jaccard. “Adolescents’ Perceptions of Maternal Disapproval of Sex: Relationship to Sexual Outcomes,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2000) 26:268.

East, P. et al. “Positive Adolescent Sexuality as Evident in Consistent and Reliable Contraceptive Use: A Study of Sexually Active Latino and Non-Latino Youths’ Contraceptive Behavior,” Sexuality Research and Social Policy (2005) 2:42.

Guilamo-Ramos, V. et al. “Paternal Influences on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Structured Literature Review,” Pediatrics (2012) 130:e1313.

Hadley, W. et al. “Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication: Association of Condom Use with Condom Discussion,” AIDS and Behavior (2009) 13:997.

Halpern-Felsher, B.L. et al. “Adolescents’ Self-Efficacy to Communicate About Sex: Its Role in Condom Attitudes, Commitment, and Use,” Adolescence (2004) 39:443.

Hutchinson, M.K et al. “The Role of Mother-Daughter Sexual Risk Communication in Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Urban Adolescent Females: A Prospective Study,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2003) 33:98,

Jaccard, J. et al. “Parent-Teen Communication About Premarital Sex: Factors Associated with the Extent of Communication,” Journal of Adolescent Research (2000) 15:187.

Kapungu, C.T. et al. “Beyond the ‘Birds and Bees:’ Gender Differences in Sex-Related Communication Among Urban African=American Adolescents,” Family Process (2010) 49:251.

Li, X. et al. “Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behaviors Among Low-Income African-American Children and Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2000) 27:43.

Miller, B.C. “Family Influences on Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior,” Journal of Sex Research (2002) 39:22.

Miller, K.S. and D.J. Whitaker. “Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discussions About Condoms: Implications for Providers Who Serve Youth,” Pediatrics (2001) 108:E28.

Miller, K.S.et al. “Family Communication About Sex: What Are Parents Saying and Are Their Adolescents Listening?” Family Planning Perspectives (1998) 30:218

Pick. S. and P.A. Palos. “Impact of the Family on the Sex Lives of Adolescents,” Adolescence (1995) 30:667.

Rogers, A.A. et al. “Quality of Parent-=Adolescent Conversations About Sex and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: An Observational Study,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2015) 57:174.

Romer, D. et al. “Parental Influence on Adolescent Sexual Behavior in High-Poverty Settings,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (1999) 153:1055.

Romo, L.F. et al. “A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Messages About Dating and Sexuality and Their Influence on Latino Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2002) 31:59.

Rupp, R. and S.L. Rosenthal. “Parental Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior,” Adolescent Medicine State of the Art Review (2007) 18:460.

Santelli, J.S. et al. “The Use of Condoms with Other Contraceptives Among Young Men and Women,” Family Planning Perspectives (1997) 29:261.

Sieving, R.E. et al. “Maternal Expectations, Mother-Child Connectedness, and Adolescent Sexual Debut,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (2000) 154:809.

Stone, N. and R. Ingham. “Factors Affecting British Teenagers’ Contraceptive Use at First Intercourse: The Importance of Partner Communication,” Perspectives on Sex and Reproductive Health (2002) 34:191.

Whitaker, D.J. and K.S. Miller. “Parent-Adolescent Discussions About Sex and Condoms,” Journal of Adolescent Research (2000) 15:251.

Widman, L. et al. “Sexual Communication Between Early Adolescents and their Dating Partners, Parents, and Best Friends,” Journal of Sex Research (2014) 51:731.

Effects of sex education classes for parents.

Lefkowitz, ES et al. “Helping Mothers Discuss Sexuality and AIDS with Adolescents,” Child Development (2000) 71:1383.

Dilorio, C. et al. “Keepin’ It Real! Results of a mother-adolescent HIV Prevention Program,” Nursing Research (2006) 55:43.

Condom effectiveness

Hatcher, RA et al. Contraceptive Technology. Ardent Media, NY. 2004. P. 334.

Sex education based on pleasure

Abraham, L. “What If Our Kids Really Believed We Wanted Them to Have Great Sex?” New York Times Magazine, Nov. 20, 2011.