Sex and marijuana:

Fuss, J. et al. “Masturbation to Orgasm Stimulates the Release of the Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Humans,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2017) 14:1372.

Hathaway, AD, “Cannabis Effects and Dependency Concerns in Long-Term Frequent Users,” Addiction Research and Theory (2003) 11:441.

Lynn, B. et al. “The Relationship Between Marijuana Use Prior to Sex and Sexual Function in Women,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2017)14 (Suppl. 1):S105.

Lynn, B. et al. “The Perceived Effects of Marijuana Use Before Sex,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2017) 14(Suppl. 5):e357.

Osborne GB and C Fogel. “Understanding the Motivations for Recreational Marijuana Use Among Canadians,” Substance Use and Misuse (2008) 43:539.

Sun, A.J. and M.L. Eisenberg. “Association Between Marijuana Use and Sexual Frequency in the United States: A Population-Based Study,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2017) 14:1342.

Weller, RA and JA Halikas, “Marijuana Use and Sexual Behavior,” Journal of Sex Research (1984) 20:186.

Drugs’ possible sexual side effects:

Drug Facts and Comparisons, Wolters Kluwer Health, St. Louis, MO.

Finger, W.W. et al. “Medications That May Contribute to Sexual Disorders,” Journal of Family Practice (1997) 44:33.

Gacci, M. et al. “Impact of Medical Treatments for Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia on Ejaculatory Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2014) 11:154.

Testosterone supplementation

Bolona, E.R. et al. “Testosterone Use in Men with Sexual Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings (2007) 82:20.

Budoff, M.J. et al. “Testosterone Treatment and Coronary Artery Plaque Vlume in Older Men with Low Testosterone,” Journal of the American Medical Association (2017) 317:708.

Corona, G. et al. “Testosterone Supplementation and Sexual Function: Meta-Analysis Study,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2014) 11:1577.

Corona, G. et al. “Meta-Analysis of Results of Testosterone Therapy on Sexual Function Based on International Index of Erectile Function Scores,” European Urology (2017) epub ahead of print.

Isidori, A.M. et al. “Effects of Testosterone on Sexual Function in Men: Results of Meta-Analysis,” Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) (2005) 63:381.

Tavernise, S. “FDA Panel Backs Limits on Testosterone Drugs,” New York Times, Sept. 18, 2014.

Rabin, R.C. “A High Price for Vigor,” New York Times, Feb. 4, 2014.

Rabin, R.C. “Mixed Results for Testosterone,” New York Times, March 28, 2017.

LaPuma, J. “Don’t Ask Your Doctor About ‘Low T’,” New York Times, Feb. 4, 2014.

O’Connor, A. “Study Adds Concerns About Cardiac Risks for Older Men Taking Testosterone,” New York Times, Jan. 30, 2014.

Singer, N. “Selling That ‘New Man’ Feeling.” New York Times, Nov 24, 2013.


Arletti, R. et al. “Stimulating Properties of Turnera Difusa and Pfaffia Paniculata extracts on the Sexual Behavior of Male Rats,” Psychopharmacology (Berlin) (1999) 143:15.

Bolour, S.Y. and G.D. Braunstein. “Pharmacologic Treatment Options for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder,” Women’s Health (Lond.) (2005) 1:263.

Carey, M.P. and B.T. Johnson. “Effectiveness of Yohimbine in the Treatment of Erectile Disorder: Four Meta-Analytic Integrations,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, (1996) 25:341

Crenshaw, T. Alchemy of Love and Lust, Gallery Books/Simon & Schuster, NY, 1997, pp. 55-63.

Estrada-Reyes, R. et al. “Pro-Sexual Effects of Turnera Diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) in Male Rats Involves the Nitric Oxide Pathway,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013) 146:164.

Estrada-Reyes, R. et al. “Turnera Diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) Recovers Sexual Behavior in Sexually Exhausted Rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2009) 123:423.

Ferguson, D.M. et al. “Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Parallel Design Trail of the Efficacy and Safety of Zestra for Women in Women with Mixed Desire/Interest/Arousal/Orgasm Disorders,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2010) 36:66.

Ferguson, D.M. et al. “Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Design Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Zestra for Women in Women with and Without Female Sexual Arousal Disorder,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2003) 29 (Suppl.1):33.

Ito, T.Y. et al. “A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of ArginMax, a Nutritional Supplement for Enhancement of Female Sexual Function,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2001) 27:541.

Ito, T.Y. et al. “The Enhancement of Female Sexual Function with ArginMax, a Nutritional Supplement, Among Women Differing in Menopausal Status,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2006) 32:369.

Kilham, C. Hot Plants: Nature’s Proven Sex Boosters for Men and Women. St. Martin’s Griffin, NY, 2004.

Nguyen, S. et al. “Safety and Efficacy of Daily Revactin in Men with Erectile Dysfunction: a 3-Month Pilot Study,” Translational Andrology and Urology (2018) 7:266.

Reid, et al “Double-Blind Trial of Yohimbine in Treatment of Psychogenic Impotence,” Lancet, Aug. 22, 1987.

Sohn, M. and R. Sikora, “Gingko Biloba Extract in the Therapy of Erectile Dysfunction,” Journal of Sex Education and Therapy (1991) 17:53.

Tribulus Terrestris

Akhtari, E. et al. “Tribulus Terrestris for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study,” Daru Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University (2014) 22:40.

Bone, K. “Tribulus for Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women,” Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients,” Aug/Sept. 2004.

DeSouza, K.Z. et al. “Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial,” Menopause (2016) 23:1252.

Gama, C.R. et al. “Clinical Assessment of Tribulus Terrestris Extract in the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction,” Clinical Medicine Insights in Women’s Health (2014) 7:45.

Kemenov, Z et al. “Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Tribulus Terrestris in Male Sexual Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial,” Maturitas (2017) 99:20.

Neychev, V. and V. Mitev. “Pro-Sexual and Androgen-Enhancing Effects of Tribulus Terrestris: Fact or Fiction?” Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2016) 179:345.

Postigo, S. et al. “Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women,” Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (2016)38:140.

Qureshi, A et al. “A Systematic Review on the Herbal Extract Tribulus Terrestris and the Roots of Its Putative Aphrodisiac and Performance-Enhancing Effect,” Journal of Dietary Supplements (2014) 11:64.

Roaiah, M.F. et al. “Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males with Partial Androgen Deficiency,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2016) 42:297.

Santos, C.A. et al. “Tribulus Terrestris Vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study,” Actas Urologia Espana (2014) 38:244.

Vale, F.B.C. et al. “Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris for the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Place