Most of the information in this chapter comes from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Sexual frequency is a risk factor for UTI:

Amiri, F.N. et al. “Hygiene Practices and Sexual Activity Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnant Women,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (2009) 15:104.

Moore, E.E. et al. “Sexual Intercourse and Risk of Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection in Post-Menopausal Women,” Journal of General Internal Medicine (2008) 23:595.

Vincent, C.R. et al. “Symptoms and Risk Factors Associated with First Urinary Tract Infection in College Age Women: A Prospective Cohort Study,” Journal of Urology (2013) 189:904.

Cranberry products reduce risk of UTIs:

Durham, S.H. et al. “Cranberry Products for the Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy (2015) 49:1349.

Foxman, B. et al. “Cranberry Juice Capsules and Urinary Tract Infection After Surgery: Results of a Randomized Trial,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2015) 213:194.

Maki, K.C. et al. “Consumption of a Cranberry Juice Beverage Lowered the Number of Clinical Urinary Tract Infection Episodes in Women with a Recent History of Urinary Tract Infection,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2016) 103:1434.

Occhipinti, A. et al. “Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection with Oximacro, A Cranberry Extract with a High Content of A-Type Proanthocyanidins: A Pre-Clinical Double-Blind Controlled Study,” Urology Journal (2016) 13:2640.

Singh, I. et al. “Effect of Oral Cranberry Extract (Standardized Proanthocyanidin-A) in Patients with Recurrent UTI by Pathogenic E. Coli: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Research Study,” International Urology and Nephrology (2016) 48:1379.

Topical lemon balm speeds healing of herpes sores

Astani, A. et al. “Attachment and Penetration of Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus Are Inhibited by Melissa Officinalis Extract,” Phytotherapy Research (2014) 28:1547.

Astani, A. et al. “Melissa Officinalis Extract Inhibits Attachment of Herpes Simplex Virus in Vitro,” Chemotherapy (2012) 58:70.

Koytchev. R. et al. “Balm Mint Extract for Topical Treatment of Recurring Herpes Labialis,” Phytomedicine (1999) 6:225.

Moradi, M.T. et al. “A Review Study on the Effect of Iranian Herbal Medicines Against In Vitro Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus,” Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine (2106) 6:506.

Nolkemper, S. et al. “Antiviral Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Species of the Laminaceae Family Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Vitro,” Planta Medica (2006) 72:1378.

Schnitzier, P. et al. “Melissa Officinalis Oil Affects Infectivity of Enveloped Herpes Virus,” Phytomedicine (2008) 15:734.

Wolbling R. H. and K. Leonhardt. “Local Therapy of Herpes Simplex with Dried Extract from Melissa Officinalis,” Phytomedicine (1994) 1:25.

Lysine supplementation reduces risk of herpes recurrences:

DiGiovanna, J.J. and H. Blank. “Failure of Lysine in Frequently Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection. Treatment and Prophylaxis,” Archives of Dermatology (19984) 120:48.

Griffith, R.S. et al. “Success of L-Lysine Therapy in Frequently Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection. Treatment and Prophylaxis,” Dermatologica (1987) 175:183.

McCune, M.A. et al. “Treatment of Recurrent Herpes Simples Infection with L-Lysine Monohydrochloride,” Cutis (1984) 34:366.

Milman, N. et al. “Lysine Prophylaxis in Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis: A Double-Blind, Controlled Crossover Study,” Acta Dermatologica Venereologica (1980) 60:85.

Thein, D.J. and W.C. Hurt. “Lysine as a Prophylactic Agent in the Treatment of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology (1984) 58:659.

Prevalence of HPV

National Center for Health Statistics data cited in the New York Times, April 7, 2017.