The story of Onan

Genesis, 38:6-10.

Why the Bible condemns non-procreative sex

Berkowitz, E. Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire. Counterpoint, Berkeley, CA, 2012.

Julius Caesar touting masturbation

Lowry, T. The Story the Soldiers Wouldn’t Tell: Sex in the Civil War. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA., 1994, p. 23

Surgeon General Jocelyn Elders forced to resign

New York Times, Dec. 10, 1994. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/10/us/surgeon-general-forced-to-resign-by-white-house.html

Surveys of masturbation frequency in the U.S.

Laumann, E.O et al. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States, University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Lindau, S.T. et al. “A Study of Sexuality and Health Among Older Adults in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine (2007) 357:762.

Herbenick, D. et al. “Sexual Diversity in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adult Men and Women,” PLOS One (2017) doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181198.

Herbenick, D. et al. “Sexual Behavior in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample of Men and Women Ages 14-94,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2010) 7(suppl 5):255.

Petersen, J.L. and J.S. Hyde. “Gender Differences and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Review of Meta-Analytic Results and Large Datasets,” Journal of Sex Research (2011) 48:149.

Demographics of masturbation.

Das, A. “Masturbation in the United States,” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy (2007) 33:301.

Dekker, A. and G Schmidt. “Patterns of Masturbatory Behavior: Changes from the 1960s to the 1990s,” Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality (2002) 14:35.

More than half of American women own at least one vibrator

Herbenick, D. et al. “Prevalence and Characteristics of Vibrator Use By Women in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Study,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2009) 6:1857.

Masturbation and prostate cancer risk

Aboul-Enein, B.H. et al. “Evidence for Masturbation and Prostate Cancer Risk: Do We Have a Verdict?” Sexual Medicine Review (2016) 4:229.

Dimitropoulou, P. et al. “Sexual Activity and Prostate Cancer Risk in Men Diagnosed at a Younger Age,” BJU International (2009) 193:178.

Giles, G.G. et al. “Sexual Factors and Prostate Cancer,” BJU International (2003) 92:211.

Jian, Z. et al. “Sexual Activity and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2018) 15:1300.

Kotb, A.F. et al. :Sexual Activity and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: Review Article,” Archives of Italian Urology and Andrology (2015) 87:214.

Leitzmann, M.F. et al. “Ejaculation Frequency and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association (2004) 291:1578.

Oishi, K. et al. “A Case-Control Study of Prostatic Cancer Risk in Kyoto, Japan: Sexual Risk Factors,” Prostate (1990) 17:269.

Rider, J.R. et al. “Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-Up,” European Urology (2016) 70:974.

Masturbation and mental health

Cyranowski, J.M. et al. “Lifetime Depression History and Sexual Function in Women in Midlife,” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2004) 33:539.

Frolich, P. and C. Meston. “Sexual Functioning and Self-Reported Symptoms Among College Students,” Journal of Sex Research (2002) 39:321.

Brody, S. “The Relative Health Benefits of Different Sexual Activities,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2010) 7:1336.

Costa, R.M. “Masturbation is Related to Psychopathology and Prostate Dysfunction: Comment on Quinsey (2012),” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2012) 41:539.

The study documenting masturbation with or for a lover

Herbenick, D. et al. “Sexual Behavior in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample of Men and Women Ages 14-94,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2010) 7(suppl 5):255.

Civil War Rev. James Cook Richmond’s erotic letter to Rosa Bielaski:

Lowry, T. The Story the Soldiers Wouldn’t Tell: Sex in the Civil War. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA., 1994, pp. 160-161.

Weak erections during masturbation can be an early sign of cardiovascular disease

Huang, Y.P. et al. “Weaker Masturbatory Erection May Be a Sign of Early Cardiovascular Risk Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men Without Sexual Intercourse,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2014) 11:1519.

Rastrelli, G. et al. “Impaired Masturbation-Induced Erections: A New Cardiovascular Risk Factor for Male Subjects with Sexual Dysfunction,” Journal of Sexual Medicine (2013) 10:1100.

Wives who masturbate to orgasm report greater self-esteem and sexual satisfaction

Hurlbert, D.F. and K.E. Whittaker. “The Role of Masturbation in Marital and Sexual Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Female Masturbators and Non-Masturbators,” Journal of Sex Research (2009) 46:558.